Alto-Intermedio 30 - Lettura Tokyo....

Alto-Intermedio 30 - Lettura Tokyo....
Upper-Intermediate - Reading Tokyo and Mexico City
Reading - Tokyo and Mexico City
Lettura - Tokyo e Messico City
Reading - Tokyo and Mexico City - the largest and second largest cities in the world.
Lettura - Tokyo e Messico City - La più grande e la seconda citt a più grande nel mondo.
Useful vocabulary
Vocabolario utile
 sprawling tentacolare
 efficient  efficiente
 subsidised  sovvenzionato  average  media
 considerably  notevolmente  slums  bassifondi
 to kidnap
 rapire  lock  chiudere a chiave
 cash machine
 bancomat  homicide  omicidio
 to attribute
 attribuire  detection  rivelazione
 rejection  rifiuto  to exert
 coastline  costa  inhospitable  inospitale
 prone  incline  earthquake  terremoto
 indirectly  indirettamente unsuspecting

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Tokyo is the largest metropolis in the world with over 35 million people in the greater Tokyo area of which 12 million live in the city centre.  Mexico city is the second largest city with a population of over 19 million people living and working in an area of around 1972 square kilometres.
Both are huge sprawling cities therefore needing efficient transport systems. The underground system in Mexico city transports around 4 million people every day.
It is heavily subsidised costing the equivalent of just 0.13 euros.  The cost of living is much cheaper than in Tokyo. 
The average monthly wage is 703 euros (in 2014) compared to Tokyo's average of 2152 euros.Tokyo has by far the most extensive underground system in the world transporting around 20 million people every day. At around €0.70-€1.10 for 1-3 stops (you pay by distance) it is considerably more expensive.
Mexico City has three main problems, poverty with around 50,000 street children and families living in slums and violent crime including around 3000 reported kidnappings each year (not everyone reports crime as there is as much mistrust with authorities as there is a problem with corruption). Tourists who have caught unlicensed taxis have run into problems here with criminals kidnapping them. They simply lock the unsuspecting person in the car, take them to the nearest cash machine and force them to empty your bank account.
By comparison Tokyo's crime levels are much lower.  For example Japan's low homicide rate is attributed to the fact they have a stable and prosperous society with low inequality, high levels of development along with the fact that they have extremely low levels of gun ownership (1 in 175 households), a greater chance of detection (according to police data, 98 per cent of homicide cases are solved), the rejection of violence after the Second World War and the stigma of arrest for any crime in Japanese society.
Pollution is the third main problem in Mexico City caused by the sheer number of people, vehicles and industry although several measures have been taken in recent years to cut down pollution. For example you can only drive your car 6 days out of 7 so be careful if you hire a car out there, you won't be able to use it every day. By comparison Tokyo has some problems with pollution but the air quality is better than in Mexico City.  Pollution has made Tokyo's coastline very inhospitable for marine life however.
Both cities are prone to earthquakes. In 1985 an earthquake hit Mexico City of magnitude 8.1. It resulted in around 1,500 deaths and 50-90,000 injured and homeless. $4 billion of damage was caused in 3 minutes. A similar strength earthquake hit Tokyo in 1923 killing 105,385 people. A lot of these people lost their lives indirectly from the earthquake, a lot of fires broke out as it hit at lunchtime and people were cooking, other people lost their lives in the tsunamis which occurred within minutes of the disaster.
The Mexico City earthquake 1985 that took place on Thursday the 19th of September 1985 was the biggest catastrophe in the history of Mexico. The earthquake measured 8.1 at its peak on the Richter scale and lasted for a duration of 90 seconds. It took place at 7:19 am. The following day at 7:38 pm, a second earthquake hit the city again but this time with a magnitude of 7.3 degrees on the Richter, throwing the city into even more chaos. To make an equivalent comparison, the earthquake would have been equal in energy exerted as 1114 atomic bombs each yielding 20 kilotons of energy.
Tokyo and Mexico City have a surprising amount in common yet they are culturally worlds apart.

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 1. Do more people live in Tokyo city centre than in Mexico City centre?
We don't know. We know there are around 19 million people who live in Mexico City but we don't know how many live in the city centre.
 2. What are the 3 main problems that Mexico City has?
The 3 main problems are:  poverty, violent crime and pollution.
 3. Can you travel safely around Mexico City in any taxi?
 No, unsuspecting tourists have been kidnapped and taken to cash machines where the driver has demanded money.
 4. Is the cost of living cheaper in Tokyo or Mexico City? Give an example to show this.
The cost of living is much cheaper in Mexico City. An example of this is the average month's salary in Mexico City of 703 euros compared to  2152 euros in Tokyo. Another example is the underground which costs around 0.13 euros in Mexico City versus 0.70-1.10 euros in Tokyo.
 5. Give 7 reasons there is less crime in Tokyo than in Mexico City.
1)Tokyo have a stable and prosperous society,
2) little inequality,
3) high levels of development,
4) extremely low levels of gun ownership,
5) a greater chance of detection according to police, 6) the rejection of violence after the Second World War
7) and the stigma of arrest for any crime.
 6. Why won't you be able to drive your car every day if you hire one in Mexico City for a week?
They are trying to reduce pollution and so you can only drive your car 6 days out of 7.
 7. Why were so many people killed in the 1923 earthquake in Tokyo?
So many people were killed in the earthquake because it happened at lunchtime which caused a lot of fires.  There was also a tsunami which killed more people.
 8. What have the 2 cities got in common?
1) Both are enormous/huge sprawling cities.
2) Both have a problem with pollution.
3) Both have earthquakes.

 9. What is the worst disaster in Mexico City's history?
Mexico City's worst disaster was the earthquake in 1985.

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